Microbial Spoilage of Food can be defined as the process in which Food becomes unsuitable for human consumption due to the growth of microorganisms.
This definition is associated with losing quality attributes, such as taste, texture, color, and nutritional value. As well as an increase in undesirable sensory properties including odour, taste or sight.The spoilage can be related to specific quality parameters or safety issues.
It is estimated that 30% of Food is likely to be spoiled to some extent before they reach the table. The conditions under which the Food has been handled during transportation, storage, and retail distribution leave it more vulnerable to spoilage microorganisms. Additionally, current trends in total quality management and extended shelf life have enhanced the risk of product deterioration.
Common Spoilers :
The first four groups often fall into transient pathogen or bioproduct spoilage organisms. They are not true pathogens but can cause spoilage by elaborating harmful metabolites.
Common Spoilage Groups:
The last two groups are true pathogens and can cause foodborne diseases. However, this usually results from the consumption of high numbers of microbial cells or the production of enterotoxins.
Acinetobacter spp., Aeromonas hydrophila, Alcaligenes spp., Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Klebsiella spp., Morganella morganii, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas fragi, Pseudomonas putida.
Pseudomonas fragi is a spoilage organism of cucumbers. It belongs to the Pseudomonas fragi species, known as some of the most prominent spoilage bacteria of vegetables.
Bacillus spp., Clostridium botulinum, Enterococcus faecalis, Lactobacillus sakei , Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus spp., Staph. Aureus. Pseudomonas fragi is a spoilage organism of cucumbers. It belongs to the Pseudomonas fragi species, known as some of the most prominent spoilage bacteria of vegetables.
Yeasts: Candida utilis, Geotrichum candidum, Rhodotorula rubra.
Gram negative bacteria: Acinetobacter spp., Aeromon as hydrophila, Alcaligenes spp., Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Klebsiella spp., Morganella morganii, Proteus mirabilis,Pseudomonas fragi, Pseudomonas putida.
“Spoilage of meat and meat products can be caused by fungi (mold), yeasts, bacteria, or the combination thereof. Fungi are responsible for food discoloration, leading to an unappetizing appearance and unpleasant smell. The discoloration is caused by dark pigments such as sporidesmin in Aspergillus niger (greening) or carbon black in Penicillium roqueforti (roquefortine blue). Degradation of meat constituents like proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates can lead to off-flavors. These are caused by enzymes degrading free amino acids, fatty acids, or sugars, further transformed into small fragments with an unpleasant taste.
Yeasts are involved in the spoilage of meat products when they outgrow the bacteria population and start dominating the spoilage flora, typically at a pH value around 5.5. The combination of yeast and bacteria can be found in products like salami, with its typical pH around 5.0. Yeasts such as Rhodotorula rubra, Geotrichum candidum, or Candida zeylanoides affect the appearance of meat products by causing whitish to brownish-grey surface growth on the product surface.”
Filamentous Fungi: Aspergillus spp., Botrytis cinerea, Mucor spp.”
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