Food waste is undeniably a global crisis that is not only consuming vast quantities of resources but also exacerbating environmental, economic, and social challenges. Every year, an estimated one-third of all food produced for human consumption is lost or wasted, amounting to approximately 1.3 billion metric tons. This staggering amount of waste has significant implications for sustainability, food security, and the well-being of our planet. The environmental impact of food waste is profound. The resources used in food production, including water, energy, and land, are squandered when food is discarded. Moreover, decomposing food waste in landfills generates methane, a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change.

Beyond the environmental consequences, food waste has economic and social implications. The economic cost of food waste is substantial, with losses throughout the entire supply chain. Food waste represents a significant financial burden for producers, retailers, and consumers. Moreover, in a world where nearly 800 million people suffer from hunger, food waste is a glaring paradox. By reducing food waste, we can redirect valuable resources to feed those in need and improve global food security.

The Scope of Food Waste

To fully comprehend the magnitude of the problem, it is crucial to examine the scope of food waste on a global scale. According to the FSSAI (Food Safety and Standards Authority of India), one-third of all food in India is wasted or gets spoilt before it is eaten. According to the UNEP Food Waste Index Report 2021, household food waste in India is estimated to be around 50 kg per person annually, or 68.76 million tonnes.

The scope of food waste is vast and encompasses various stages of the food supply chain. To fully understand the extent of this issue, let’s explore each stage in more detail:

  • Production:

Food waste begins at the agricultural level. Factors such as unpredictable weather conditions, pests, diseases, and inadequate harvesting techniques can result in significant crop losses

  • Processing:

During food processing, certain parts of fruits, vegetables, or animal products may be discarded due to cosmetic imperfections or the extraction of specific components.

  • Distribution:

Food waste can occur during transportation and distribution due to improper handling, delays, or lack of appropriate storage facilities.

  • Retail:

Retailers often face pressures to meet consumer demand for aesthetically pleasing produce. As a result, perfectly edible fruits, vegetables, and other food products that don’t meet strict cosmetic standards are discarded.

  • Consumption:

Food waste at the consumer level is a significant contributor to the overall problem. Consumers often buy more food than they can consume, leading to excess food being thrown away.

  • Foodservice:

Restaurants, cafeterias, and catering services generate substantial amounts of food waste. Leftovers, plate waste, and expired or spoiled ingredients contribute to the problem.

The Causes of Food Waste

Understanding the causes of food waste is essential in developing effective strategies to combat it. In developed countries, consumer behaviour plays a significant role. Factors such as overbuying, improper storage, and confusion over expiration dates contribute to large quantities of edible food being discarded. In developing nations, inadequate infrastructure, lack of cold storage facilities, and poor post-harvest handling practices result in significant losses. Furthermore, the emphasis on cosmetic standards and strict quality requirements set by retailers leads to the rejection of perfectly edible food.

Food waste is driven by a complex web of causes that vary across different stages of the food supply chain and geographical regions. Understanding these causes is crucial for implementing effective strategies to combat food waste. Here are some key factors contributing to food waste:

  • Overproduction and Oversupply:

In an effort to meet demand and ensure availability, food producers often overproduce or oversupply food. This can occur due to inaccurate forecasting, market uncertainties, contractual obligations, or fear of shortages.

  • Poor Harvesting and Post-Harvest Practices:

Inadequate harvesting techniques, such as improper timing or rough handling, can damage crops and lead to significant losses. Furthermore, insufficient post-harvest storage and handling practices

  • Cosmetic Standards and Retail Practices:

Retailers and consumers have high expectations for visually appealing produce. Strict cosmetic standards set by retailers lead to the rejection of fruits, vegetables, and other products that deviate from the desired appearance, despite being perfectly safe and nutritious to consume.

  • Confusion over Expiration Dates:

Misinterpretation of expiration dates or confusion between “best before” and “use by” dates leads consumers to discard perfectly edible food. Many consumers mistakenly believe that food is unsafe to consume once the expiration date has passed, contributing to unnecessary waste.

  • Inefficient Supply Chain Management:

Inefficiencies in transportation, storage, and distribution can result in food waste. Poor coordination among different actors in the supply chain, inadequate infrastructure, delays, and suboptimal temperature control during transportation can lead to spoilage and waste.

  • Consumer Behaviour and Household Habits:

Consumer behaviour plays a significant role in food waste. Impulsive buying, improper meal planning, and overestimating quantities needed often result in excess food being purchased and subsequently discarded.

  • Lack of Infrastructure and Resources:

Inadequate infrastructure and resources, particularly in developing countries, contribute to food waste. Insufficient cold storage facilities, poor packaging materials, limited access to transportation, and inadequate post-harvest handling practices lead to significant losses in perishable food items.

  • Foodservice Industry Practices:

Restaurants, hotels, and other foodservice establishments generate substantial amounts of food waste. Buffets, portion sizes, and food preparation practices often result in plate waste and discarded leftovers. Inefficient inventory management and overproduction to meet uncertain demand also contribute to waste in the foodservice sector.

Environmental and Social Implications

The consequences of food waste extend far beyond the immediate loss of resources. One of the most significant impacts is environmental degradation. Food waste contributes to greenhouse gas emissions, with decomposing food in landfills releasing methane—a potent greenhouse gas. Additionally, food production requires vast amounts of resources, including water, energy, and land. When food is wasted, these resources are essentially squandered. Food waste also contributes to deforestation as agricultural expansion encroaches on natural habitats.

Food waste has profound environmental and social implications that extend far beyond the immediate loss of food resources. Let’s explore the environmental and social consequences of food waste in more detail:

Environmental Implications:

  • Greenhouse Gas Emissions
  • Resource Depletion
  • Deforestation and Habitat Loss
  • Water Scarcity

Social Implications:

  • Food Insecurity and Hunger
  • Economic Losses
  • Social Justice and Equality
  • Food Loss in Developing Countries

Economic Considerations

The economic costs of food waste are substantial. From the financial burden on households to the loss of revenue for businesses, food waste has far-reaching economic implications. The resources invested in producing, transporting, and disposing of wasted food represent a significant drain on the economy. Farmers, retailers, and consumers all bear the financial consequences of food waste.

Food waste has significant economic implications that impact various sectors of the economy. The economic considerations associated with food waste highlight the need for urgent action to address this issue. Let’s explore some key economic implications of food waste:

  • Loss of Resources and Investment
  • Increased Production Costs
  • Reduced Profitability for Businesses
  • Supply Chain Inefficiencies
  • Economic Impact on Consumers
  • Missed Economic Opportunities
  • Cost of Waste Management

Solutions and Initiatives

Recognizing the urgency of the problem, various organizations, governments, and individuals are actively working to combat food waste. One solution gaining traction is the implementation of food recovery and redistribution programs. These initiatives rescue surplus food from restaurants, supermarkets, and farms and redirect it to those in need. Composting is another effective approach, as it allows food waste to be transformed into nutrient-rich soil. Technological innovations in packaging and storage, such as smart packaging that extends shelf life and efficient cold storage facilities, can also help reduce waste throughout the supply chain.

Education and awareness campaigns play a vital role in changing consumer behaviour and promoting mindful consumption. By educating individuals about proper storage techniques, portion control, and creative ways to use leftovers, we can empower people to make a difference in their daily lives.

Policy and Regulatory Frameworks

To effectively tackle food waste, comprehensive policy frameworks are required at the national and international levels. Governments play a crucial role in implementing regulations and incentives that promote sustainable practices throughout the food supply chain. These may include tax incentives for food donations, stricter regulations on expiration date labelling, and requirements for businesses to report and reduce their food waste. Furthermore, collaborations between governments, businesses, and civil society organizations are necessary to develop innovative solutions and create a supportive environment for change.

Individual Responsibility

While systemic changes are vital, individual actions also play a significant role in addressing food waste. Each person can make a difference by adopting mindful shopping habits, planning meals in advance, and utilizing leftovers creatively. Understanding expiration dates, proper food storage, and portion control are also essential in reducing household food waste. By collectively embracing sustainable consumption practices, we can significantly contribute to the reduction of food waste.

Food waste requires a multi-faceted approach and the collective effort of various stakeholders.

Here are key steps that can be taken to combat food waste:

  • Raising Awareness and Changing Behaviours
  • Implementing Efficient Supply Chain Practices
  • Redistributing Surplus Food
  • Investing in Infrastructure and Technology
  • Encouraging Policy Support
  • Fostering Collaboration and Partnerships


Food waste is indeed consuming us, depleting natural resources, exacerbating climate change, and perpetuating food insecurity. However, by raising awareness, implementing efficient supply chain practices, redistributing surplus food, investing in infrastructure and technology, encouraging policy support, and fostering collaboration, we can combat this crisis and create a more sustainable and equitable food system. It is imperative that we act now to reduce food waste and secure a better future for both our planet and the generations to come.

Food waste is a pressing issue that demands immediate attention. The consequences of wasted food are far-reaching, impacting the environment, society, and the economy. However, by addressing the root causes, implementing innovative solutions, and fostering a culture of sustainable consumption, we can make a meaningful impact. The urgent need for change requires collective action, with individuals, businesses, and governments working together to build a more sustainable and equitable future. Only through collaborative efforts can we overcome the challenge of food waste and create a world where no one goes hungry while preserving our planet’s resources. The time for change is now, and it is within our power to make a difference.

Ashutosh Jaiswal

Manager of Quality Assurance & Food Safety

Wilmar International